栏目导航

 

应用领域

农业微生物、发酵、军事微生物、厌氧微生物、食品微生物、分子微生物、药敏试验、功能基因组学、致突变和遗传毒性研究、人工大气研究、基因技术、口腔微生物、抗生素测定、生物膜微生物、生长率和延迟时间、抗生素后效应、生物反应器研究、工业微生物、土壤微生物、生物技术、医疗和制药领域、孢子微生物、细胞生物、微生物鉴定、兽医微生物、临床微生物、微生物研究、污水处理、环境微生物、化妆品微生物、水微生物、酵母研究、酒类微生物

 

举例

1)通过同时记录生长曲线的参数来同时了解200种培养物的生长状况(浊度生成);

2)测量食品样品中的微生物总菌数;

3)测量维生素、氨基酸、抗生素、杀菌剂、毒药、生物刺激物、生长阻滞剂等化合物含量的微生物学测定法;

4)利用有机废料来生产微生物蛋白;

5)研发新的抗微生物剂或者抗真菌剂;

6)研发微生物防腐剂;

7)研发微生物单细胞蛋白(SCP)的生产工艺;

8)酶、蛋白质、脂肪酸等物质的生产;

9)研发废水处理生物膜和活性污泥工艺,污染性物质生物降解条件的优化;

10)研究不同温度条件下的微生物工艺;

11)确定抗菌剂的最小抑制浓度(MIC),或者抗生素等化合物的致死剂量(LD);

12)开发特殊功能的微生物;

13)检测细菌尿的存在和含量;

14)测量不同化合物的毒性和潜在诱变性;

15)研究微生物和细胞的代谢过程;

16)研究酸奶、啤酒、红酒或食品生产的微生物学过程;

17)测量不同参数(如pH、温度、水活度、盐浓度、化合物)对于纯培养物或混合培养物的综合效果;

18)研究噬菌体的生长动力学(下降生长曲线);

19)内毒素测定的鲎血液变形细胞溶解物试验;

20)借助于MS Excel等程序的微生物、噬菌体或细胞生长的数学模型;

21)开发微生物或细胞的选择性培养基或宽谱培养基。


测试举例

全自动生长曲线分析仪是一个动态测量样品浊度的光学机械仪器。要明白她是否能进行一个特殊的测试,就有必要知道测试是否涉及培养液在生长期间的浊度(或颜色)变化。所有微生物(细菌、真菌、酵母和藻类)在培养液中繁殖都产生浊度。试管测试中凡是发生浊度和颜色变化的,大多数都能在她的“微测试试管”中来做。

除了多用途研究工作,全自动生长曲线分析仪也用于日常工作,如样品中细菌数量的测量(食品质量控制、细菌尿等)和微生物学测试(维生素、抗生素等化合物)。在很多其他研究中,如在测量抗生素对微生物的体外效果方面尤为突出。例如:

让我们设想一下我们需要体外检查5种新抗生素对于10种不同细菌的效果。为了比较,5种旧抗生素也用于测试。对于每种抗生素,我们将用5种不同的浓度;实验设置5个温度处理和3pH处理;并且所有实验都用3个平行样。这样,这种抗生素效果模型所需要的测试数为:

10种抗生素(5种新抗生素和5种用于比较的旧抗生素);

10种细菌(例如:菌株1、…、菌株10);

每种抗生素设5个浓度梯度(例如:152050100 μg/mL);

5个温度梯度(例如:30℃、36℃、37℃、37.5℃、38℃);

3pH(例如:6.57.58.5);

每个测试3个平行样。

10×10×5×5×3×322500个生长曲线测试

用手工做这些测试(每天最多做20个测试)要花费22500÷20=1125个工作日。假定每年有200个工作日,这样就要花费1125÷200=5.6年+资料处理时间。如果用Bioscreen C做生长曲线耗时少于12h(如果采用连续振荡功能,这常能做到),每天就能做400个测试。Bioscreen C在56天内可做22500个这样的测试。这个实验用传统的手工方法要耗时6年,而用Bioscreen C可在2个月内完成。

 

 

可用Bioscreen C做的微生物

Acidovorax temperans, Acinetobacter baumannii, Acinetobacter baumannii Bouvet and, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Acinetobacter haemolyticus, Acinetobacter haemolyticus Bouvet and, Acinetobacter johnsonii, Acinetobacter junii, Acinetobacter lwoffii, Acinetobacter radioresistens, Acinetobacter sp., Acinetobacter sp. deposited as, Acinetobacter tartarogenes, Aerococcus viridans, Aeromicrobium erythreum, Aeromicrobium fastidiosum, Aeromonas caviae, Aeromonas caviae (ex Eddy), Aeromonas enteropelogenes, Aeromonas eucrenophila, Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas ichthiosmia, Aeromonas punctata, Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. achromogenes, Aeromonas sobria, Aeromonas veronii, Agrobacterium agile, Agrobacterium ferrugineum, Agrobacterium luteum, Agrobacterium meteori, Agrobacterium sanguineum, Agrobacterium sp., Agrobacterium sp. deposited as, Agrococcus citreus, Agromonas oligotrophica, Agromyces mediolanus, Ahrensia kielensis, Alcaligenes denitrificans, Alcaligenes faecalis subsp. faecalis, Alcaligenes latus, Alcaligenes sp., Alcaligenes viscolactis, Alcanivorax borkumensis, Alternaria alternata, Alternaria tenuissima, Alteromonas macleodii, Alteromonas sp., Ambrosiozyma monospora, Aminobacter aminovorans, Amoeba, Aneurinibacillus aneurinolyticus, Aneurinibacillus migulanus, Aneurinibacillus thermoaerophilus, Aquaspirillum delicatum, Aquaspirillum giesbergeri, Aquaspirillum itersonii subsp. itersonii, Aquaspirillum metamorphum, Aquaspirillum peregrinum subsp. peregrinum, Aquaspirillum polymorphum, Aquaspirillum putridiconchylium, Aquaspirillum serpens (Muller) Hylemon, Aquaspirillum serpens, Aquaspirillum sinuosum, Aquaspirillum sp., Arcobacter nitrofigilis, Arizona hinshawii, Arthroascus javanensis, Arthrobacter agilis, Arthrobacter albidus, Arthrobacter atrocyaneus, Arthrobacter aurescens, Arthrobacter citreus, Arthrobacter crystallopoietes, Arthrobacter globiformis, Arthrobacter histidinolovorans, Arthrobacter hydrocarboglutamicus, Arthrobacter methylotrophus, Arthrobacter mysorens, Arthrobacter nicotianae, Arthrobacter nicotinovorans, Arthrobacter oxamicetus, Arthrobacter oxydans, Arthrobacter paraffineus, Arthrobacter pascens, Arthrobacter petroleophagus, Arthrobacter protophormiae, Arthrobacter ramosus, Arthrobacter roseoparaffinus, Arthrobacter rubellus, Arthrobacter sp., Arthrobacter sulfonivorans, Arthrobacter sulfureus, Arthrobacter uratoxydans, Arthrobacter ureafaciens, Arthrobacter viscosus, Arxula adeninivorans, Arxula terrestris, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus parasiticus, Azoarcus communis, Azoarcus indigens, Azotomonas fluorescens, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus atrophaeus, Bacillus azotoformans, Bacillus badius, Bacillus benzoevorans, Bacillus brevis, Bacillus carboniphilus, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus chitinosporus, Bacillus circulans, Bacillus circulans Jordan deposited, Bacillus circulars, Bacillus coagulans, Bacillus firmus, Bacillus flexus, Bacillus fragilis, Bacillus freudenreichii, Bacillus fusiformis, Bacillus galactophilus, Bacillus insolitus, Bacillus laterosporus, Bacillus lentus, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus lichenisformis, Bacillus longisporus, Bacillus macerans, Bacillus maroccanus, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus mycoides, Bacillus nitritollens, Bacillus oleronius, Bacillus pabuli, Bacillus polymixa, Bacillus polymyxa, Bacillus psychrosaccharolyticus, Bacillus pumilis, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus pumilus Meyer and, Bacillus simplex, Bacillus sp., Bacillus sphaericus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus subtilis (Ehrenberg) Cohn, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner deposited, Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis, Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki, Bacillus toyoi, Bacillus validus, Bacterioides vulgatus, Bacteriophage, Bacterium agglutinabile, Bacterium anitratum, Bacterium cytophaga, Bacterium denitrificans, Bacterium hebetisiccus, Bacterium liquatum, Bacteroides distasonis, Bacteroides fragilis, Bacteroides gingivalis, Bacteroides gracilis, Bacteroides ovatus, Bacteroides ureolyticus, baker's yeast, Beijerinckia indica subsp. indica, Bensingtonia ingoldii, Bensingtonia intermedia, Bensingtonia miscanthi, Bensingtonia naganoensis, Bensingtonia phyllada, Bensingtonia subrosea, Bensingtonia yuccicola, Bifidobacterium animalis (Mitsuoka) Scardovi, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium coryneforme, Bifidobacterium dentium, Bifidobacterium infantis, Bifidobacterium magnum, Bifidobacterium pseudolongum subsp. pseudolongum, Bifidobacterium subtile, Bifidobacterium suis, Bifidobacterium thermophilum, Bilophia wadsworthia, biofilm culture, Blastoschizomyces capitatus, Bordetella avium, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Bordetella petrii, Botryoascus synnaedendrus, Brachybacterium faecium, Brachyspira innocens, Brenneria nigrifluens, Brenneria paradisiaca, Brenneria quercina, Brenneria rubrifaciens, Brenneria salicis, Brevibacillus agri, Brevibacillus borstelensis, Brevibacillus brevis, Brevibacillus centrosporus, Brevibacillus choshinensis, Brevibacillus formosus, Brevibacillus parabrevis, Brevibacillus reuszeri, Brevibacterium album, Brevibacterium alkanolyticum, Brevibacterium aquapile, Brevibacterium butanicum, Brevibacterium cerinum, Brevibacterium chang-fua, Brevibacterium frigoritolerans, Brevibacterium fuscum, Brevibacterium glutamigenes, Brevibacterium halotolerans, Brevibacterium healii, Brevibacterium helvolum, Brevibacterium immariophilium, Brevibacterium insectiphilium, Brevibacterium iodinum, Brevibacterium ketoglutamicum, Brevibacterium ketosoreductum, Brevibacterium lactofermentum, Brevibacterium linens, Brevibacterium lyticum, Brevibacterium maris, Brevibacterium otitidis, Brevibacterium paraffinoliticum, Brevibacterium roseum, Brevibacterium saccharolyticum, Brevibacterium seonmiso, Brevibacterium sp., Brevibacterium stationis, Brevibacterium sterolicum, Brevibacterium taipei, Brevibacterium thiogenitalis, Brevundimonas diminuta, Brevundimonas vesicularis, Budvicia aquatica, Burkholderia andropogonis, Burkholderia caryophylli, Burkholderia cepacia, Burkholderia cocovenenans, Burkholderia gladioli, Burkholderia pyrrocinia, Burkholderia thailandensis, Burkholderia vandii, Buttiauxella agrestis, Buttiauxella brennerae, Buttiauxella ferragutiae, Buttiauxella gaviniae, Buttiauxella izardii, Buttiauxella noackiae, Buttiauxella warmboldiae, Butyrivibrio fibrisolvensis, Caldimonas manganoxidans, Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus, Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis, Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni, Campylobacter lari, Campylobacter mucosalis (Lawson et, Campylobacter sputorum, Campylobacter sputorum biovar sputorum, Candida albicans, Candida anatomiae, Candida antarctica, Candida apicola, Candida aquaetextoris, Candida blankii, Candida boidinii, Candida bombicola, Candida buinensis, Candida caseinolytica, Candida castellii, Candida crusei, Candida cylindracea, Candida deserticola, Candida diversa, Candida eremophila, Candida ethanolica, Candida fennica, Candida fragariorum, Candida fragi, Candida glabrata, Candida guilliermondi, Candida guilliermondii, Candida haemulonii, Candida homilentoma, Candida incommunis, Candida intermedia, Candida ishiwadae, Candida japonica, Candida kefyr, Candida krusei, Candida lambica, Candida lusitaniae, Candida maltosa, Candida melibiosica, Candida milleri, Candida mogii, Candida molischiana, Candida nitratophila, Candida novakii, Candida orba, Candida oregonensis, Candida palmioleophila, Candida parapsilosis, Candida pintolopesii, Candida populi, Candida pseudotropicalis, Candida quercitrusa, Candida sake, Candida sequanensis, Candida shehatae, Candida silvae, Candida sp., Candida spandovensis, Candida tanzawaensis, Candida tepae, Candida terebra, Candida tropicalis, Candida utilis, Candida valida, Candida wickerhamii, Carnobacterium divergens, Carnobacterium piscicola, Caulobacter segnis, Cedecea davisae, Cedecea lapagei, cell culture, Cellulomonas biazotea, Cellulomonas cartae, Cellulomonas cellasea, Cellulomonas fimi, Cellulomonas flavigena, Cellulomonas gelida, Cellulomonas sp., Cellulomonas turbata, Cellulomonas uda, Cellulophaga baltica, Cellulophaga fucicola, Cellulosimicrobium cellulans, Cellvibrio gilvus, Ceratocystis olivacea, Chelatobacter heintzii, Chromobacterium violaceum, Chryseobacterium balustinum, Chryseobacterium gleum, Chryseobacterium indologenes, Chryseobacterium meningosepticum, Citrobacter amalonaticus, Citrobacter braakii, Citrobacter diversus, Citrobacter farmeri, Citrobacter freundii, Citrobacter gillenii, Citrobacter koseri, Citrobacter murliniae, Citrobacter rodentium, Citrobacter sedlakii, Citrobacter sp., Citrobacter werkmanii, Citrobacter youngae, Clavibacter sp., Clavispora lusitaniae, Clavispora opuntiae, Clostridium acetobutylicus, Clostridium beijerinckii, Clostridium bifermentans, Clostridium butyricum, Clostridium cocleatum, Clostridium difficile, Clostridium novyi, Clostridium oedematiens, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium septicum, Clostridium sphenoides, Clostridium spiroforme, Clostridium sporogenes, Clostridium tetani, Clostridum sordellii, Colwellia psychrerythraea, Comamonas denitrificans, Comamonas terrigena, Comamonas testosteroni, Corvnebacterium xerosis, Corynebacterium acetoacidophilum, Corynebacterium acetoglutamicum, Corynebacterium alkanum, Corynebacterium ammoniagenes, Corynebacterium argentoratense, Corynebacterium aurantiacum, Corynebacterium flavescens, Corynebacterium fujiokense, Corynebacterium glutamicum, Corynebacterium helvolum, Corynebacterium herculis, Corynebacterium hydrocarbooxydans, Corynebacterium liquefaciens, Corynebacterium matruchotii, Corynebacterium melassecola, Corynebacterium murisepticum, Corynebacterium mycetoides, Corynebacterium nitrilophilus, Corynebacterium paraldehydium, Corynebacterium petrophilum, Corynebacterium propinquum, Corynebacterium sp., Corynebacterium variabile, Corynebacterium vitaeruminis, Cryptococcus albidus, Cryptococcus curvatus, Cryptococcus elinovii, Cryptococcus hungaricus, Cryptococcus neoformans, Cryptococcus podzolicus, Cryptococcus skinneri, Cryptococcus tsukubaensis, Curtobacterium albidum, Curtobacterium citreum, Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens, Curtobacterium luteum, Curtobacterium pusillum, Cyclobacterium marinum, Cycloclasticus pugetii, Cystofilobasidium bisporidii, Cystofilobasidium infirmo-miniatum, Cystofilobasidium lari-marini, Cytophaga allerginae, Debaryomyces hansenii, Debaryomyces melissophilus, Debaryomyces polymorphus, Debaryomyces prosopidis, Debaryomyces robertsiae, Debaryomyces vanrijiae, Debaryomyces yamadae, Dechloromonas agitata, Deinococcus radiopugnans, Dekkera abstinens, Dekkera bruxellensis, Dekkera intermedia, Dekkera naardenensis, Delftia acidovorans, Dermacoccus nishinomiyaensis, Devosia riboflavina, Dipodascopsis tothii, Dolosigranulum pigrum, Edwardsiella hoshinae, Edwardsiella ictaluri, Edwardsiella tarda, Empedobacter breve, Empedobacter sp., Endomycopsella crataegensis, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter agglomerans, Enterobacter amnigenus, Enterobacter asburiae, Enterobacter cancerogenus, Enterobacter cloacae (Jordan) Hormaeche, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter dissolvens, Enterobacter gergoviae, Enterobacter intermedius, Enterobacter nimipressuralis, Enterobacter sakazakii, Enterococcus avium, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus hirae, Erwinia amylovora, Erwinia chrysanthemi, Erwinia cypripedii, Erwinia mallotivora, Erwinia psidii, Erwinia rhapontici, Erwinia sp., Erwinia tracheiphila, Erythrobacter longus, Escherichia blattae, Escherichia coli, Escherichia fergusonii, Escherichia hermannii, Escherichia intermedia, Escherichia vulneris, Eubacterium aerofaciens, Eubacterium budayi, Eubacterium fossor, Eubacterium lentum, Eubacterium limosum, Eubacterium moniliforme, Eubacterium multiforme, Exiguobacterium acetylicum, Fibrobacter succinogenes subsp. succinogenes, Filobasidium capsuligenum, Flavobacterium breve, Flavobacterium ferrugineum, Flavobacterium flavescens, Flavobacterium frigidarium, Flavobacterium hydatis, Flavobacterium odoratum, Flavobacterium pectinovorum, Flavobacterium resinovorum, Flavobacterium sp., Flexibacter canadensis, Flexibacter polymorphus, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusobacterium gonidiaformans, Fusobacterium mortiferum, Fusobacterium naviforme, Fusobacterium necrogenes, Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. nucleatum, Fusobacterium russii, Fusobacterium ulcerans, Fusobacterium varium, Ga starter, Gelidibacter algens, Geobacillus kaustophilus, Geobacillus stearothermophilus, Geobacillus thermodenitrificans, Geotrichum klebahnii, Glaciecola pallidula, Glaciecola punicea, Gracilibacillus dipsosauri, Gracilibacillus halotolerans, Guilliermondella selenospora, Haemophilus ducreyi, Haemophilus influenzae, Hafnia alvei, Halobacillus halophilus, Halomonas aquamarina (Baumann et, Halomonas aquamarina, Halomonas cupida, Halomonas halodenitrificans, Halomonas halophila, Halomonas marina, Halomonas pacifica, Halomonas venusta, Helcococcus kunzii, Herbaspirillum rubrisubalbicans, Holleya sinecauda, Hormoascus philentomus, Hydrogenophaga palleroni, Hydrogenophaga taeniospiralis, Hyphomicrobium indicum, Hyphomonas adhaerens, Hyphomonas hirschiana, Hyphomonas jannaschiana, Hyphomonas johnsonii, Hyphomonas neptunium, Hyphomonas oceanitis, Hyphomonas polymorpha, Hyphomonas rosenbergii, Hyphomonas sp., Idiomarina abyssalis, Idiomarina zobellii, Iodobacter fluviatilis, Issatchenkia orientalis, Janthinobacterium lividum, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella ozaenae, Klebsiella planticola, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. ozaenae, Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. rhinoscleromatis, Klebsiella sp., Kloeckera apiculata, Kloeckeraspora vineae, Kluyvera ascorbata, Kluyvera cochleae, Kluyvera cryocrescens, Kluyvera georgiana, Kluyveromyces africanus, Kluyveromyces bacillisporus, Kluyveromyces delphensis, Kluyveromyces lactis, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Kluyveromyces piceae, Kluyveromyces polysporus, Kocuria kristinae, Kocuria rosea, Kocuria varians, Kodamaea ohmeri, Komagataella pastoris, Kurthia sibirica, Kurthia sp., Kurthia zopfii, Kurtzmanomyces nectairei, Kytococcus sedentarius, Lactobacillus acetotolerans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus agilis, Lactobacillus alimentarius, Lactobacillus amylophilus, Lactobacillus amylovorus, Lactobacillus animalis, Lactobacillus arizonensis, Lactobacillus aviarius subsp. araffinosus, Lactobacillus aviarius subsp. aviarius, Lactobacillus bifermentans, Lactobacillus bifidum, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus brevis subsp. gravesensis, Lactobacillus brevis subsp. otakiensis, Lactobacillus buchneri, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus casei (Orla-Jensen) Hansen, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus cellobiosus, Lactobacillus collinoides, Lactobacillus coryniformis subsp. coryniformis, Lactobacillus coryniformis subsp. torquens, Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus curvatus, Lactobacillus cypricasei, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis, Lactobacillus equi, Lactobacillus farciminis, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus fornicalis, Lactobacillus fructivorans, Lactobacillus fructosus, Lactobacillus gallinarum, Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus graminis, Lactobacillus hamsteri, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus hilgardii, Lactobacillus intestinalis, Lactobacillus jensenii, Lactobacillus johnsonii, Lactobacillus kefiri, Lactobacillus kimchii, Lactobacillus lactis, Lactobacillus leichmannii, Lactobacillus malefermentans, Lactobacillus mali, Lactobacillus mali Carr and, Lactobacillus maltaromicus, Lactobacillus murinus, Lactobacillus nagelii, Lactobacillus oris, Lactobacillus parabuchneri, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei, Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerans, Lactobacillus paraplantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus (Hansen) Collins, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus ruminis, Lactobacillus sake, Lactobacillus sakei, Lactobacillus salivarius subsp. salivarius, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis Weiss and, Lactobacillus sharpeae, Lactobacillus sp., Lactobacillus suebicus, Lactobacillus vaginalis, Lactobacillus vitulinus, Lactobacillus zeae, Lactococcus lactis, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Lactococcus raffinolactis, Leclercia adecarboxylata, Leifsonia aquatica, Leminorella grimontii, Leminorella richardii, Leminorella sp., Leuconostoc argentinum, Leuconostoc carnosum, Leuconostoc citreum, Leuconostoc fallax, Leuconostoc gelidum, Leuconostoc lactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides Farrow et, Leuconostoc sp., Leucosporidium scottii, Lewinella cohaerens, Lewinella nigricans, Listeria monocytogenes, Listonella anguillarum, Listonella pelagia, Luteococcus japonicus, Lysobacter antibioticus, Lysobacter brunescens, Lysobacter enzymogenes subsp. cookii, Lysobacter enzymogenes subsp. enzymogenes, Lysobacter gummosus, Macrococcus caseolyticus, Mannheimia haemolytica, Marinibacillus marinus (Ruger and, Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus, Marinobacterium georgiense, Marinomonas communis, Marinomonas mediterranea, Marinomonas vaga, Marinospirillum minutulum, Mastigomyces philippovii, Methylobacterium aminovorans, Methylobacterium extorquens, Methylobacterium fujisawaense, Methylobacterium radiotolerans, Methylobacterium rhodesianum, Methylobacterium rhodesianum Green et, Methylobacterium rhodinum, Methylobacterium zatmanii, Methylopila capsulata, Metschnikowia agaveae, Metschnikowia australis, Metschnikowia bicuspidata, Microbacterium ammoniaphilum, Microbacterium arborescens, Microbacterium esteraromaticum, Microbacterium imperiale, Microbacterium lacticum, Microbacterium liquefaciens, Microbacterium maritypicum, Microbacterium saperdae, Microbacterium sp., Microbacterium testaceum, Microbispora rosea, Microbulbifer hydrolyticus, Micrococcus candicans, Micrococcus conglomeratus, Micrococcus flavus, Micrococcus freudenreichii, Micrococcus luteus, Micrococcus lylae, Micrococcus maripuniceus, Micrococcus naucinus, Micrococcus salivarius, Micrococcus sp., Micromonospora coerulea, Mitsuokella jalaludinii, Mixed culture, Moellerella wisconsensis, Moraxella (Moraxella), Moraxella (Moraxella) osloensis (Bovre, Morganella morganii, Morganella morganii subsp. morganii, Morganella morganii subsp. sibonii, Moritella marina, Mrakia frigida, Mrakia gelida, Mrakia nivalis, Mucor alternans, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium diernhoferi, Mycobacterium fortuitum subsp. fortuitum, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium sp., Mycoplana bullata, Mycoplana dimorpha, Mycoplana ramosa, Mycoplasma alkalescens, Mycoplasma arginini, Mycoplasma bovoculi, Mycoplasma californicum, Mycoplasma canadense, Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum, Mycoplasma citelli, Mycoplasma collis, Mycoplasma columbinum, Mycoplasma columborale, Mycoplasma cricetuli, Mycoplasma equigenitalium, Mycoplasma equirhinis, Mycoplasma faucium, Mycoplasma feliminutum, Mycoplasma lagogenitalium, Mycoplasma mobile, Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, Mycoplasma putrefaciens, Mycoplasma subdolum, Mycoplasma testudinis, Mycoplasma verecundum, Myroides odoratus, Myxozyma geophila, Myxozyma lipomycoides, Myxozyma melibiosi, Myxozyma mucilagina, Myxozyma udenii, Neisseria macacae, Neisseria mucosa, Neptunomonas naphthovorans, Nitrobacter spp., Nitrobacter vulgaris, Nocardia asteroides, Nocardia canicruria, Nocardia corallina, Nocardia sp., Nocardioides simplex, Nocardiopsis dassonvillei subsp. dassonvillei, Novosphingobium capsulatum, Obesumbacterium proteus, Oceanimonas doudoroffii, Oceanospirillum beijerinckii subsp. beijerinckii, Oceanospirillum jannaschii, Oceanospirillum japonicum, Oceanospirillum kriegii, Oceanospirillum linum, Ochrobactrum anthropi, Oenococcus oeni (Garvie) Dicks, Oenococcus oeni, Ogataea kodamae, Ogataea pini, Ogataea wickerhamii, Pachysolen tannophilus, Pachytichospora transvaalensis, Paenibacillus alginolyticus, Paenibacillus alvei, Paenibacillus amylolyticus, Paenibacillus chondroitinus, Paenibacillus glucanolyticus, Paenibacillus gordonae, Paenibacillus larvae subsp. pulvifaciens, Paenibacillus macerans, Paenibacillus polymyxa (Prazmowski) Ash, Paenibacillus polymyxa, Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus, Pantoea agglomerans (Beijerinck) Gavini, Pantoea agglomerans, Pantoea ananatis (Serrano) Mergaert, Pantoea ananatis, Pantoea citrea, Pantoea dispersa, Pantoea punctata, Pantoea stewartii subsp. indologenes, Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii, Pantoea terrea, Paracoccus alcaliphilus, Paracoccus aminophilus, Paracoccus aminovorans, Paracoccus pantotrophus, Paralactobacillus selangorensis, Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida, Pectinatus cerevisiiphilus, Pectinatus cerevisiiphulus, Pectinatus frisingensis, Pectobacterium cacticida, Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. atrosepticum, Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. wasabiae, Pectobacterum carotovorum subsp. betavasculorum, Pedicoccus damnosus, Pedicoccus pentosaceus, Pediococcus acidilactici, Pediococcus damnosus, Pediococcus damnosus Claussen deposited, Pediococcus dextrinicus, Pediococcus inopinatus, Pediococcus parvulus, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Pediococcus urinaeequi, Pedobacter heparinus, Peptococcus anaerobius, Peptococcus niger, Photobacterium angustum, Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae, Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida, Photobacterium iliopiscarium, Photobacterium phosphoreum, Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. luminescens, Photorhabdus temperata, Phyllobacterium myrsinacearum, Phyllobacterium rubiacearum, Pichia alni, Pichia amethionina, Pichia angusta, Pichia anomala, Pichia antillensis, Pichia barkeri, Pichia cactophila, Pichia canadensis, Pichia caribaea, Pichia deserticola, Pichia fabianii, Pichia heedii, Pichia heimii, Pichia holstii, Pichia kluyveri, Pichia membranaefaciens, Pichia methanolica, Pichia minuta, Pichia norvegensis, Pichia opuntiae, Pichia populi, Pichia pseudocactophila, Pichia rabaulensis, Pichia salictaria, Pichia sp., Pichia thermotolerans, Planctomyces maris, Planomicrobium mcmeekinii, Planomicrobium okeanokoites, Plesiomonas shigelloides, Polaribacter filamentus, Polaribacter glomeratus, Polaromonas vacuolata, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Pragia fontium, Propionibacterium acidipropionici, Propionibacterium acnes, Propionibacterium avidum, Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii, Propionibacterium jensenii, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus mitajiri, Proteus morganii, Proteus myxofaciens, Proteus penneri, Proteus rettgeri, Proteus vulgaris, Protomyces inundatus, Providencia alcalifaciens, Providencia heimbachae, Providencia rettgeri, Providencia rustigianii, Providencia sp., Providencia stuartii, Pseudoalteromonas atlantica, Pseudoalteromonas aurantia, Pseudoalteromonas bacteriolytica, Pseudoalteromonas carrageenovora, Pseudoalteromonas citrea, Pseudoalteromonas distincta, Pseudoalteromonas elyakovii, Pseudoalteromonas espejiana, Pseudoalteromonas flavipulchra, Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis, Pseudoalteromonas luteoviolacea, Pseudoalteromonas piscicida, Pseudoalteromonas rubra, Pseudoalteromonas translucida, Pseudoalteromonas undina, Pseudomonas acidophila, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas aeruginosa subsp. erythrogenes, Pseudomonas agarici, Pseudomonas alcaligenes, Pseudomonas alkanolytica, Pseudomonas amyloderamosa, Pseudomonas anguilliseptica, Pseudomonas aromatica, Pseudomonas asplenii, Pseudomonas aurantiaca, Pseudomonas auricularis, Pseudomonas avellanae, Pseudomonas azelaica, Pseudomonas boreopolis, Pseudomonas cannae, Pseudomonas caricapapayae, Pseudomonas chlororaphis, Pseudomonas cichorii, Pseudomonas cissicola, Pseudomonas citronellolis, Pseudomonas coenobios, Pseudomonas corrugata, Pseudomonas cruciviae, Pseudomonas dacunhae, Pseudomonas diazotrophicus, Pseudomonas ficuserectae, Pseudomonas flavescens, Pseudomonas flectens, Pseudomonas floridana, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas fragi, Pseudomonas fulva, Pseudomonas huttiensis, Pseudomonas lanceolata, Pseudomonas lundensis, Pseudomonas luteochromogenes, Pseudomonas luteola, Pseudomonas marginalis, Pseudomonas meliae, Pseudomonas mendocina, Pseudomonas mephitica, Pseudomonas mesoacidophila, Pseudomonas monteilii, Pseudomonas mucidolens, Pseudomonas mutabilis, Pseudomonas nitroreducens, Pseudomonas oleovorans, Pseudomonas oryzihabitans, Pseudomonas papaveris, Pseudomonas perolens subsp. gdansk, Pseudomonas pictorum, Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes, Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes subsp. pseudoalcaligenes, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas reptilivora, Pseudomonas resinovorans, Pseudomonas savastanoi, Pseudomonas septica, Pseudomonas sp., Pseudomonas spinosa, Pseudomonas stanieri, Pseudomonas straminea, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Pseudomonas synxantha, Pseudomonas syringae, Pseudomonas syringae subsp. syringae, Pseudomonas taetrolens, Pseudomonas tolaasii, Pseudomonas turbinellae, Pseudomonas tuticorinensis, Pseudomonas veronii, Pseudomonas viridiflava, Pseudomonas viridilivida, Pseudonocardia thermophila, Pseudoramibacter alactolyticus, Psychrobacter glacincola, Psychrobacter phenylpyruvicus, Psychrobacter urativorans, Psychroflexus gondwanensis, Psychroflexus torquis, Psychromonas kaikoae, Psychroserpens burtonensis, Rahnella aquatilis, Ralstonia metallidurans, Ralstonia pickettii, Raoultella ornithinolytica, Raoultella planticola, Raoultella terrigena, Rathayibacter rathayi, Rhizobium radiobacter, Rhizobium rhizogenes, Rhizobium rubi, Rhizobium vitis, Rhodococcus equi, Rhodococcus erythropolis, Rhodococcus globerulus, Rhodococcus rhodnii, Rhodococcus rhodochrous, Rhodococcus sp., Rhodococcus sp. deposited as, Rhodosporidium babjevae, Rhodosporidium diobovatum, Rhodosporidium fluviale, Rhodosporidium lusitaniae, Rhodosporidium sphaerocarpum, Rhodosporidium toruloides, Rhodotorula acheniorum, Rhodotorula acuta, Rhodotorula bogoriensis, Rhodotorula cresolica, Rhodotorula diffluens, Rhodotorula ferulica, Rhodotorula glutinis, Rhodotorula graminis, Rhodotorula hinnulea, Rhodotorula hordea, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Rhodotorula phylloplana, Roseivivax halodurans, Roseivivax halotolerans, Roseobacter denitrificans, Roseobacter gallaeciensis, Roseobacter litoralis, Rothia mucilaginosa, Rubrobacter radiotolerans, Ruegeria algicola, Ruegeria atlantica, Ruegeria gelatinovorans, Rugamonas rubra, Runella slithyformis, Saccharomonospora viridis, Saccharomyces bayanus, Saccharomyces bulderi, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Hansen, Saccharomyces dairensis, Saccharomyces diastaticus, Saccharomyces mangini, Saccharomyces pastorianus, Saccharomyces servazzii, Saccharomyces silvestris, Saccharomyces sp., Saccharomyces uvarum, Saccharomycopsis fibuligera, Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula, Sagittula stellata, Salegentibacter salegens, Salinivibrio costicola subsp. costicola, Salmonella choleraesuis subsp. arizonae, Salmonella choleraesuis subsp. choleraesuis, Salmonella choleraesuis subsp. diarizonae, Salmonella choleraesuis subsp. houtenae, Salmonella choleraesuis subsp. salamae, Salmonella enterica, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella infantis, Salmonella pullorum, Salmonella sp., Salmonella typhi, Salmonella typhimurium, Saprospira grandis, Saturnospora saitoi, Schizosaccharomyces japonicus, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Schwanniomyces occidentalis, Septobasidium carestianum, Serratia entomophila, Serratia ficaria, Serratia fonticola, Serratia grimesii, Serratia liquefaciens, Serratia marcescens, Serratia marcescens Bizio deposited, Serratia odorifera, Serratia plymuthica, Serratia proteamaculans subsp. proteamaculans, Serratia proteamaculans subsp. quinovora, Serratia rubidaea, Serratia sp., Shewanella algae, Shewanella benthica, Shewanella colwelliana, Shewanella frigidimarina, Shewanella gelidimarina, Shewanella hanedai, Shewanella japonica, Shewanella pealeana, Shewanella woodyi, Shigella boydii, Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella flexneri, Shigella sonnei, Shigella sp., Sphaerotilus natans, Sphingobacterium antarcticum, Sphingobacterium multivorum, Sphingobacterium spiritivorum, Sphingobacterium thalpophilum, Sphingobium herbicidovorans, Sphingomonas echinoides, Sphingomonas paucimobilis, Sphingomonas sanguinis, Sphingopyxis macrogoltabida, Sphingopyxis terrae, Spiroplasma apis, Sporidiobolus johnsonii, Sporidiobolus pararoseus, Sporidiobolus ruineii, Sporidiobolus ruineniae, Sporobolomyces albo-rubescens, Sporobolomyces elongatus, Sporobolomyces falcatus, Sporobolomyces foliicola, Sporobolomyces lactosus, Sporobolomyces roseus, Sporobolomyces singularis, Sporobolomyces tsugae, Sporolactobacillus inulinus, Sporopachydermia cereana, Sporopachydermia quercuum, Sporosarcina globispora, Sporosarcina psychrophila, Sporosarcina ureae, Sporothrix schenckii, Staleya guttiformis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus, Staphylococcus auricularis, Staphylococcus bovis, Staphylococcus capitis subsp. capitis, Staphylococcus caprae, Staphylococcus chromogenes (Devriese et, Staphylococcus cohnii subsp. cohnii, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus gallinarum, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus hominis subsp. hominis, Staphylococcus hyicus, Staphylococcus intermedius, Staphylococcus lentus (Kloos et, Staphylococcus mitis, Staphylococcus muscae, Staphylococcus pulvereri, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Staphylococcus sciuri subsp. carnaticus, Staphylococcus sciuri subsp. rodentium, Staphylococcus sciuri subsp. sciuri, Staphylococcus simulans, Staphylococcus sp., Staphylococcus warneri, Staphylococcus xylosus, Stappia aggregata, Stappia stellulata, Starkeya novella, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Stephanoascus ciferrii, Sterigmatomyces elviae, Sterigmatomyces halophilus, Streptobacillus moniliformis, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus faecalis, Streptococcus faecium, Streptococcus ferus, Streptococcus intermedius, Streptococcus lactis, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus sp., Streptococcus uberis, Streptomyces flaveus, Streptomyces olivaceus, Streptomyces thermoviolaceus subsp. thermoviolaceus, Streptomyces thermovulgaris, Streptomyces vendargensis, Streptomyces viridifaciens, Sulfitobacter brevis, Sulfitobacter mediterraneus, Sulfitobacter sp., Sympodiomyces parvus, teleomorph (budding yeast) deposited as Saccharomyces oviformis Osterwalder, teleomorph 233 , teleomorph, Tenacibaculum ovolyticum, Terrabacter tumescens, Tetragenococcus halophilus, Tetrapisispora iriomotensis, Tetrapisispora nanseiensis, Tetrapisispora phaffii, Thermaerobacter marianensis, Thermoactinomyces sp., Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, Thermococcus litoralis, Thermococcus sp., Thermomonospora chromogena, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Torulopsis glabrata, Trichococcus flocculiformis, Trichosporon cutaneum, Trichosporon mucoides, Trichosporon pullulans, Trichosporon sp., Trigonopsis variabilis, Tsukamurella paurometabola, Unidentified bacterium, Unidentified mixed, Ureaplasma canigenitalium, Ureaplasma gallorale, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Variovorax paradoxus, Veillonella dispar, Veillonella parvula, Vibrio adaptatus, Vibrio aerogenes, Vibrio aestuarianus, Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio algosus, Vibrio anguillarum, Vibrio campbellii, Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio cincinnatiensis, Vibrio cyclitrophicus, Vibrio cyclosites, Vibrio diazotrophicus, Vibrio fischeri, Vibrio fluvialis, Vibrio furnissii, Vibrio gazogenes, Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio hollisae, Vibrio ichthyoenteri, Vibrio lentus, Vibrio logei, Vibrio marinagilis, Vibrio marinofulvus, Vibrio marinovulgaris, Vibrio mediterranei, Vibrio metschnikovii, Vibrio mimicus, Vibrio mytili, Vibrio natriegens, Vibrio navarrensis, Vibrio nereis, Vibrio nigripulchritudo, Vibrio ordalii, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio pectenicida, Vibrio penaeicida, Vibrio ponticus, Vibrio proteolyticus, Vibrio salmonicida, Vibrio shiloii, Vibrio sp., Vibrio splendidus, Vibrio tubiashii, Vibrio tyrosinaticus, Vibrio vulnificus, Virgibacillus pantothenticus, Vogesella indigofera, Waltomyces lipofer, Weissella confusa, Weissella halotolerans, Weissella hellenica, Weissella kandleri, Weissella minor, Weissella paramesenteroides, Weissella viridescens, Wickerhamia fluorescens, Wickerhamiella domercqiae, Williopsis saturnus, Xanthobacter autotrophicus, Xanthobacter flavus, Xanthobacter sp., Xanthomonas albilineans, Xanthomonas arboricola, Xanthomonas axonopodis, Xanthomonas axonopodis Starr and, Xanthomonas campestris, Xanthomonas cucurbitae, Xanthomonas hortorum, Xanthomonas hyacinthi, Xanthomonas pisi, Xanthomonas sp., Xanthomonas translucens, Xanthomonas vasicola, Xanthomonas vesicatoria, Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous, Xenorhabdus beddingii, Xenorhabdus nematophila, Xylophilus ampelinus, Yamadazyma acaciae, Yamadazyma besseyi, Yamadazyma castillae, Yamadazyma farinosa, Yamadazyma guilliermondii, Yamadazyma haplophila, Yamadazyma media, Yamadazyma mexicana, Yamadazyma nakazawae, Yamadazyma scolyti, Yamadazyma segobiensis, Yamadazyma spartinae, Yamadazyma stipitis, Yarrowia lipolytica, Yeast deposited, Yeast sp., Yersinia aldovae, Yersinia enterocolitica, Yersinia frederiksenii, Yersinia intermedia, Yersinia kristensenii, Yersinia pestis, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Yersinia rohdei, Yersinia ruckeri, Yokenella regensburgei, Zoogloea ramigera, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Zygosaccharomyces bisporus, Zygosaccharomyces fermentati, Zygosaccharomyces mrakii, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, Zymomonas mobilis

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